Lycium Barbarum (Wolfberry fruit)

Lycium Barbarum (Wolfberry fruit)
Chinese medical receipe are often using KiChi (Lycium Barbarum) to improve health

The Effects of Lycium Barbarum Juice on human blood.

The Effects of Lycium Barbarum Juice on human blood.
Dr. Marcial-Vega has studied ‘before’ and ‘after’ effects of various treatments on the blood for years in thousands of patients. He also devised a revolutionary system to study ‘live’ blood, using a microscope and video camera to record the result. These images are microscopic slides of human samples from Dr. Marcial-Vega’s research and his obeservations on goji’s incredible impact on a patient’s blood over a seven-day period.

Dr. Victor Marcial-Vega. Completed residency at John Hopkins School of Medicine Dr. Marcial-Vega studied the effects of goji juice on the human body for nearly three years.

Blood That is Too Acidic
This is the blood of one of my patients before he began drinking goji. It looks like there are stacks of coins piled against each other. Those are red blood cells. They are not supposed to be like that. They are supposed to be separate from each other, nice and round, and floating around the blood transporting oxygen, which is not happening here. The blood is very acidic. So, in this person is not an adequate transport of oxygen. The little dots in the background are bacteria in the blood. We are not sterile. In this particular person, the bacteria levels are way above normal. The dark spots in the background are pieces of cholesterol.

Improvement Just Hours After Drinking Goji
This is what happened 24 to 36 hours after drinking goji juice in the same patient. The cells have separated, meaning the blood is becoming more alkaline. Oxygen is being transport better. The bacteria floating in the background are still there, but there has been improvement. The white blood cell in the center is moving up and is becoming wider. It is supposed to move across the blood, eat the bacteria, eat the cholesterol pieces and recognize what is supposed to be there. Again, the white blood cell in the center is becoming wider because it is moving up and to the sides. Its edges are not fixed.

A Week Later
And after seven days of taking goji: Look at the cells, There is very little anemia-Just a little bit in the lower right-hand corner. But most of the cells have a good content of hemoglobin. So we are seeing at the cellular blood level how goji and subsequent alkalinization of the blood is affecting the parameters that we know make a big difference in predicting how these people are going to do. Not only that, but this white cell looks healthy. It is well-delineated edge. It is not fuzzy like the first one we saw.

Dikutip dari Majalah Breakthroughs in Health – Volume 2 Issue 3


Dikutip dari Majalah Breakthroughs in Health – Volume 2 Issue 3

Benefits of consuming Lycium Barbarum Juice (Bahasa)

1. Menyehatkan sistem cardiovascular.
2. Menurunkan kolesterol & darah asam.
3. Meningkatkan sistem kekebalan tubuh.
4. Memberikan antioksidan yang tinggi.
5. Menunda proses penuaan dini.
6. Membuat terlihat dan merasa lebih muda.
7. Memulihkan kesehatan fungsi seksual.
8. Memperkuat kesehatan penglihatan.
9. Mengurangi gangguan sakit kepala dan pusing.
10. Memperbaiki kualitas tidur (insomnia)
11. Membantu menyeimbangkan kadar gula darah
12. Membantu menormalkan tekanan darah.
13. Menjaga kadar kolesterol yang sehat.
14. Mengurangi radang dan nyeri sendi.
15. Membantu mengatasi rasa mual dan muntah yang muncul pada awal kehamilan
16. Membantu mengatasi peradangan otot
17. Membantu penderita alergi.
18. Meningkatkan daya ingat.
19. Menjaga kesehatan saluran pencernaan.
20. Menjaga kekuatan sel darah.
21. Mengurangi efek racun akibat kemoterapi dan radiasi.
22. Mengurangi gejala menopause.
23. Memperkuat otot, tulang dan gigi.
24. Membantu fungsi ginjal.
25. Menjaga kesehatan anak-anak.
26. Menjaga kesehatan gusi.
27. Membantu mengatasi batuk kering kronis.
28. Membantu mengatasi asam urat.
29. Menjaga kesehatan prostat.
30. Melawan hemorrhoids.
31. Membantu menekan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan kanker.
32. Meningkatkan kesuburan.
33. Melindungi dan memperbaiki kerusakan DNA.
34. Memperbaiki persentase sel darah putih.
35. Meningkatkan daya serap kalsium.
36. Meningkatkan energi, metabolisme dan kekuatan fisik.
37. Mengurangi stress dan memiliki efek menenangkan.
38. Menaikan libido pria & wanita.
39. Membantu menjaga berat badan yang ideal.
40. Mengurangi kolesterol LDL dan triglycerides.
41. Membersihkan darah.

What is Lycium Barbarum?

Lycium Barbarum (Wolfberry/KiChi/Goji/Snowberry)

Lycium barbarum illustration from Flora von Deutschland, by Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany.
Wolfberry species are deciduous woody perennial plants, growing 1-3 m high. L. chinense is grown in the south of China and tends to be somewhat shorter, while L. barbarum is grown in the north, primarily in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and tends to be somewhat taller.
The botanical division named to the upper right, Magnoliophyta, identifies plants that flower and the class Magnoliopsida represents flowering plants (Dicotyledons) with two embryonic seed leaves called cotyledons appearing at germination.
The order Solanales names a perennial plant with five-petaled flowers that are more or less united into a ring at the base; well-known members of the order include morning glory, bindweed, and sweet potato as well as the plants of the Solanaceae, mentioned below.
Lastly, Solanaceae is the nightshade family that includes hundreds of plant foods like potato, tomato, eggplant, wolfberry, peppers (paprika), crop commodities (tobacco), and flowers (petunia). Although the Solanales includes many plant foods, some members are poisonous (for example belladonna).

Wolfberry leaves and flower
Wolfberry leaves form on the shoot either in an alternating arrangement or in bundles of up to three, each having a shape that is either lanceolate (shaped like a spearhead longer than it is wide) or ovate (egg-like). Leaf dimensions are 7 cm long by 3.5 cm wide with blunted or round tips.
One to three flowers (picture) occur on stems 1-2 cm in length. The calyx (eventually ruptured by the growing berry) consists of bell-shaped or tubular sepals forming short, triangular lobes. The corolla are lavender or light purple, 9-14 mm long with five or six lobes shorter than the tube. The stamens are structured with anthers that open lengthwise, shorter in length than the filaments (picture).
In the northern hemisphere, flowering occurs from June through September and berry maturation from August to October, depending on latitude, altitude, and climate.
These species produce a bright orange-red, ellipsoid berry 1-2 cm long. The number of seeds in each berry varies widely based on cultivar and fruit size, containing anywhere between 10-60 tiny yellow seeds that are compressed with a curved embryo. The berries ripen from July to October in the Northern hemisphere.
"Wolfberry" is the most commonly used English name, while gǒuqǐ (枸杞) is the Chinese name for the berry producing plant. In Chinese, the berries themselves are called gǒuqǐzi (枸杞子), with zi meaning "seed" or specifically "berry". Other common names are "the Duke of Argyll's Tea Tree"[3] and "matrimony vine".[3] Rarely, wolfberry is also known in pharmacological references as Lycii fructus, meaning "Lycium fruit" in Latin.
The origin of the common name "wolfberry" is unknown, perhaps resulting from confusion over the genus name, which resembles "lycos", the Greek word for wolf. In the English-speaking world, "goji berry" has been used since the early 21st century as a synonym for "wolfberry". While the origin of the word "goji" is unclear, it may be a simplified pronunciation of gǒuqǐ, the Mandarin name of the plant, developed by those marketing wolfberry products in the West.
Lycium, the genus name, is derived from the ancient southern Anatolian region of Lycia (Λυκία).[4] L. chinense was first described by the Scottish botanist Philip Miller in the eighth edition of his The Gardener's Dictionary, published in 1768.
In Japan the plant is known as kuko (クコ) and the fruits are called kuko no mi (クコ の 実) or kuko no kajitsu (クコ の 果 実); in Korea the berries are known as gugija (hangul: 구 기 자; hanja: 枸杞子)[24]; in Vietnam the fruit is called "kỷ tử" (杞子), "cẩu kỷ" (枸杞), "cẩu kỷ tử"(枸杞子) but the plant and its leaves are known more popularly as "củ khởi"; and in Thailand the plant is called găo gèe (เก๋ากี่). In Tibetan the plant is called dretsherma ( ), with dre meaning "ghost" and tsherma meaning "thorn"; and the name of the fruit is dretshermǟ dräwu ( ), with dräwu meaning "fruit".
Since the early 21st century in the United States and other such developed countries, there has been rapidly growing attention for wolfberries for their nutrient value and antioxidant content, leading to a profusion of consumer products. Such rapid commercial development extends from wolfberry having a high ranking among superfruits[5] expected to be part of a multi-billion dollar market by 2011.[6][7]

Ripe wolfberries, Zhongning County, Ningxia, China
The majority of commercially produced wolfberries come from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of north-central China and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of western China, where they are grown on plantations. In Zhongning County, Ningxia, wolfberry plantations typically range between 100 and 1000 acres (or 500-6000 mu) in area. As of 2005, over 10 million mu have been planted with wolfberries in Ningxia.[8]

Cultivated along the fertile aggradational floodplains of the Yellow River for more than 600 years, Ningxia wolfberries have earned a reputation throughout Asia for premium quality sometimes described commercially as "red diamonds".[9] Government releases of annual wolfberry production, premium fruit grades, and export are based on yields from Ningxia, the region recognized with:

• The largest annual harvest in China, accounting for 42% (13 million kg, 2001) of the nation's total yield of wolfberries, estimated at approximately 33 million kg (72 million lb) in 2001.
• Formation of an industrial association of growers, processors, marketers, and scholars of wolfberry cultivation to promote the berry's commercial and export potential.
• The nation's only source of therapeutic grade ("superior-grade") wolfberries used by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine.[10]

In addition, commercial volumes of wolfberries grow in the Chinese regions of Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi and Hebei. When ripe, the oblong, red berries are tender and must be picked carefully or shaken from the vine into trays to avoid spoiling. The fruits are preserved by drying them in full sun on open trays or by mechanical dehydration employing a progressively increasing series of heat exposure over 48 hours.
Wolfberries are celebrated each August in Ningxia with an annual festival coinciding with the berry harvest.[8] Originally held in Ningxia's capital, Yinchuan, the festival has been based since 2000 in Zhongning County, an important center of wolfberry cultivation for the region.[8] As Ningxia's borders merge with three deserts, wolfberries are also planted to control erosion and reclaim irrigable soils from desertification.[11]
China, the main supplier of wolfberry products in the world, had total exports generating US$120 million in 2004. This production derived from 82,000 hectares farmed nationwide, yielding 95,000 tons of wolfberries.[9]

Dried wolfberries
Wolfberries are almost never found in their fresh form outside of their production regions, and are usually sold in open boxes and small packages in dried form. The amount of desiccation varies in wolfberries: some are soft and somewhat tacky in the manner of raisins, while others may be very hard.
As a food, dried wolfberries are traditionally cooked before consumption. Dried wolfberries are often added to rice congee, as well as used in Chinese tonic soups, in combination with chicken or pork, vegetables, and other herbs such as wild yam, Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula, and licorice root. The berries are also boiled as an herbal tea, often along with chrysanthemum flowers and/or red jujubes, or with tea, particularly pu-erh tea,[citation needed] and packaged teas are also available.
Various wines containing wolfberries (called gǒuqǐ jiǔ; 枸杞酒) are also produced,[25][26] including some that are a blend of grape wine and wolfberries.
At least one Chinese company also produces wolfberry beer, and New Belgium Brewery makes their seasonal Springboard ale with wolfberries used as flavoring. Since the early 21st century, an instant coffee product containing wolfberry extract has been produced in China.
Young wolfberry shoots and leaves are also grown commercially as a leaf vegetablephotorecipe

Wolfberry leaves may be used to make tea[27] and Lycium root bark (called dìgǔpí; 地 骨 皮 in Chinese) for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment of inflammatory and some types of skin diseases. A glucopyranoside and phenolic amides isolated from wolfberry root bark have inhibitory activity in vitro against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi.[28][29]
An early mention of wolfberry occurs in the 7th century Tang Dynasty treatise Yaoxing Lun[citation needed]. It is also discussed in the 16th century Ming Dynasty Compendium of Materia Medica of Li Shizhen.
Marketing literature for wolfberry products including several "goji juices" suggest that wolfberry polysaccharides have extensive biological effects and health benefits, although none of these claims have been supported by peer-reviewed research. Wolfberry polysaccharides show antioxidant activity in vitro[30][31]. Although the macromolecular structure of wolfberry polysaccharides has not been elucidated, preliminary structural studies appear to indicate that they exist in the form of complex glycoconjugates.[32][33]
Wolfberry also contains zeaxanthin, an important dietary carotenoid antioxidant, and a human supplementation trial showed that daily intake of wolfberries increased plasma levels of zeaxanthin.[34]
A May 2008 clinical study published by the peer-reviewed Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine indicated that parametric data, including body weight, did not show significant differences between subjects receiving Lycium barbarum berry juice and subjects receiving the placebo; the study concluded that subjective measures of health were improved and suggested further research in humans was necessary.[35]
Published studies have also reported possible medicinal benefits of Lycium barbarum, especially due to its antioxidant properties,[36] including potential benefits against cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases,[37][38] vision-related diseases[39] (such as age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma[40]), having neuroprotective properties[41] or as an anticancer[42] and immunomodulatory agent.[43]

Safety issues
Two published case reports described elderly women who experienced increased bleeding, expressed as an elevated INR, after drinking finite amounts of wolfberry tea.[44][45] Further in vitro testing revealed that the tea inhibited warfarin metabolism, providing evidence for possible interaction between warfarin and undefined wolfberry phytochemicals.[44]
Atropine, a toxic alkaloid found in other members of the Solanaceae family, occurs naturally in wolfberry fruit. The atropine concentrations of berries from China and Thailand are variable, with a maximum content of 19 ppb, below the likely toxic amount.[46]
Wolfberry contains significant percentages of a day's macronutrient needs – carbohydrates, protein, fat and dietary fiber. 68% of the mass of dried wolfberries exists as carbohydrate, 12% as protein, and 10% each as fiber and fat, giving a total caloric value in a 100 gram serving of 370 (kilo)calories.[47]

Micronutrients and phytochemicals
Wolfberries contain many nutrients and phytochemicals[47] including
• 11 essential and 22 trace dietary minerals
• 18 amino acids
• 6 essential vitamins
• 8 polysaccharides and 6 monosaccharides
• 5 unsaturated fatty acids, including the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid
• beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols
• 5 carotenoids, including beta-carotene and zeaxanthin (below), lutein, lycopene and cryptoxanthin, a xanthophyll
• numerous phenolic pigments (phenols) associated with antioxidant properties
Select examples given below are for 100 grams of dried berries. Other nutrient data are presented in two reference texts[47]
• Calcium. Wolfberries contain 112 mg per 100 gram serving, providing about 8-10% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI).
• Potassium. Wolfberries contain 1,132 mg per 100 grams dried fruit, giving about 24% of the DRI.
• Iron. Wolfberries have 9 mg iron per 100 grams (100% DRI).
• Zinc. 2 mg per 100 grams dried fruit (18% DRI).
• Selenium. 100 grams of dried wolfberries contain 50 micrograms (91% DRI)
• Riboflavin (vitamin B2). At 1.3 mg, 100 grams of dried wolfberries provide 100% of DRI.
• Vitamin C. Vitamin C content in dried wolfberries has a wide range (from different sources[citation needed]) from 29 mg per 100 grams to as high as 148 mg per 100 grams (respectively, 32% and 163% DRI).
Wolfberries also contain numerous phytochemicals[47] for which there are no established DRI values. Examples:
• Beta-carotene: 7 mg per 100 grams dried fruit.
• Zeaxanthin. Reported values for zeaxanthin content in dried wolfberries vary considerably, from 2.4 mg per 100 grams [48] to 82.4 mg per 100 grams [49] to 200 mg per 100 grams[50]. The higher values would make wolfberry one of the richest edible plant sources known for zeaxanthin content.[51] Up to 77% of total carotenoids present in wolfberry exist as zeaxanthin.[52]
• Polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are a major constituent of wolfberries, representing up to 31% of pulp weight.

Wolfberry polysaccharides
One study[53] published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology found that:
• Endogenous lipid peroxidation, and decreased antioxidant activities, as assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and immune function were observed in aged mice and restored to normal levels in Lycium polysaccharide-treated groups.
• Antioxidant activities of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides were found to be compable with normal antioxidant, vitamin C. Furthemore, adding vitamin C to the polysaccharide treatment further increased in vivo antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides[54].
• It was concluded that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can be used to compensate for the decline in TAOC, immune function and activities of antioxidant enzymes thereby reducing age-accelerated risks of lipid peroxidation caused by free radical production[55].

Micronutrient and phytochemical contents
Differences in:
• The degree of berry maturation at the time of picking
• Soil conditions and geographic region where the berries were grown
• Post-harvest handling and processing
• Duration of storage
• Residual water content and
• Assay preparation
can significantly affect individual nutrient contents, especially those for vitamins and phytochemicals. These factors make data comparisons between different assays or sources difficult to reconcile.
Functional food and beverage applications
It is often cultivated for a variety of food and beverage applications within China, but increasingly today for export as dried berries, juice and powders of pulp or juice, wolfberries are prized for their versatility of color and nut-like taste in common meals, snacks, beverages and medicinal applications. A major effort is underway in Ningxia, China to process wolfberries for “functional” wine.